The agreement defines the goods, services and processes associated with them. Any provision of goods or services legally put on the market before leaving the EU may be made available to consumers in the UK or in the EU Member States (Article 40-41). The controversial Irish backstop – the mechanism to ensure the opening of borders on the island of Ireland – was one of the main reasons why MEPs rejected the agreement. Many “outgoings” also claim that the deal entangles the UK too closely with the EU, and some say they would prefer no deal at all. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, a trade fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms.  In addition, the Equal Competition Mechanism has been postponed from the legally binding withdrawal agreement to the political declaration, and the line of the political statement that “the United Kingdom will consider taking into account alignment with trade union rules in the relevant areas” has been removed.  The agreement was revised as part of the Johnson Department renegotiation in 2019. The amendments amend about 5% of the text On the irish border issue, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal that will only come into force if effective alternative arrangements are not demonstrated before the transition period expires.
In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed.  On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement was presented and the support of the British government cabinet, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union.  Ministers claim that this is a security mechanism in case the EU exposes the agreement in an “extreme and inappropriate” manner, particularly the Northern Ireland section. The section – known as the protocol – aims to avoid a hard border on the island of Ireland, only payments resulting directly from financial equalization are approved by the bill. It does not cover payments related to future agreements between the UK and the EU. The bill is now moving on to the second phase of the parliamentary process – the so-called committee phase. It will be the subject of a thorough analysis over the next three days, with MEPs proposing amendments. On 22 October 2019, the House of Commons agreed, by 329 votes to 299, to give a second reading to the revised withdrawal agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month), but when the accelerated timetable it had proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the law would be overturned.   The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom bound by the Convention and accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. at the end of the spring semester 2020-2021. Theresa May, Johnson`s predecessor in Downing Street, failed several times because her Brexit deal was adopted by MPs, leading to her resignation as Prime Minister. The declaration on the future relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom, also known as the Political Declaration, is a non-binding declaration, negotiated and signed at the same time as the mandatory and broader withdrawal agreement on the uk`s withdrawal from the European Union (EU), known as Brexit, and the planned end of the transition period.